Reflexões sobre o envelhecimento e seus inúmeros fatores associados a falta de atividades físicas

O envelhecimento, de forma geral, em função da vida chega para muitos, como um peso descomunal, o que é altamente negativo, e, para outros, como um momento natural, de respeito e cuidados especiais na família e fora dela, pelo muito de sabedoria que o idoso acumulou ao longo da existência, o que não é muito comum.

Isto, porque, ao ter início o processo de envelhecimento no ser humano, este fica vulnerável a inúmeras preocupações que se traduzem em efeitos negativos em seu organismo, envolvendo funções fisiológicas e psicológicas.

A esse respeito vale atentar para o que define o fragmento textual a seguir: “A palavra envelhecimento traz em si a conotação de perdas declínios, doença, castigo e proximidade do fim da vida” (MAZO, LOPES e BENEDETTI, 2004, p. 41).

E, complementando o conceito dado por esses mesmos autores, vale ressaltar que todo o processo de envelhecimento gera, por extensão, crendices e lendas na perspectiva de o ser humano poder alcançar a imortalidade, a exemplo da crença no elixir da longa vida que curava as doenças e prolongava a vida indefinidamente.

O elixir da longa vida é uma lenda, entretanto, a sua constante busca pelo ser humano permitiu chegar a muitos avanços tecnológicos e científicos que podem conduzir à cura ou ao controle de doenças, ao mesmo tempo em que, leva de fato, pelas razões já referidas ao prolongamento da vida, que na velhice traz como sobrecarga as angústias peculiares à idade.

Percebe-se, pois, nesta abordagem que o envelhecimento não é algo fácil de ser enfrentado isoladamente. Afinal, trata-se de “um processo que envolve muitas variáveis (genética, estilo de vida e doenças crônicas) que interagem influenciando a maneira pela qual envelhecemos” (CORAZZA, 2001, p. 19).

E, apesar da longevidade que se chegou hoje sob o efeito de novos medicamentos, novas vacinas e tratamentos especializados, é de fundamental importância a definição e utilização de mecanismos que possam trazer benefícios para os idosos, como é o caso do exercício físico que pode proporcionar melhoria: da saúde, da capacidade funcional da qualidade de vida e da perspectiva pessoal. E, tudo isto traz para o idoso uma sensação muito boa de superação de seus limites, de independência.

O processo de envelhecimento acontece com todo mundo, no entanto, apresenta algumas variações em seu desenvolvimento. Assim, para a sua definição e estágio, há de se considerar os diferentes conceitos de idade, como – cronológica, biológica, psicológica e social, conforme Corazza (2001). E, traduzindo os conceitos apresentados por esta autora, pode-se afirmar que: a idade cronológica se traduz pela quantidade de anos ou meses que se tem, a partir do nascimento, sem grandes oscilações, quando se tem uma vida saudável; a idade biológica é um conceito que tem relação com a prática de hábitos saudáveis de vida, como: bons hábitos alimentares, atividades físicas sob orientação médica e repousos regulares, atitudes positivas e tranquilas diante dos fatos da vida, entre outros, que denotam sempre menor idade cronológica. Do contrário o organismo pode apresentar diferentes quadros clínicos, a exemplo de: hipertensão arterial, diabetes, obesidade, que além de representarem alguns dos fatores de risco para a manifestação de doenças cardiovasculares, que, quando não são fatais, provocam debilidade no organismo, fazendo com que o indivíduo apresente uma aparência de maior idade cronológica.

Por outro lado, é interessante ressaltar, segundo Schroots & Birren (1990), apud Corazza (2001), que muitas vezes pessoas que têm a mesma idade cronológica, podem apresentar diferentes idades biológicas, em razão, simplesmente, de apresentarem diferentes idades psicológicas. Este fato, naturalmente, tem relação direta com a dinâmica de atividades físicas realizada por uma pessoa e não pela outra. Afinal, segundo a Organização Mundial de Saúde – OMS (1997) a atividade física praticada regularmente é de suma importância para a saúde psicológica, social e fisiológica de pessoas idosas.

O conceito de idade psicologia, em conformidade com Birren (1959), apud Corazza (2001) tem referência com as capacidades de cada indivíduo, as quais envolvem dimensões mentais relacionadas com a cognição, autoestima, autossuficiência, aprendizagem, memória e percepção. A idade social pode é traduzida como a apresentação de um comportamento social adequado à faixa etária do indivíduo, em resposta às determinações da própria sociedade.

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